The aspirational target of keeping global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius over pre-industrial levels were maintained in a final COP27 declaration encapsulating the broad initiatives to deal with a warming planet.

While repeating past requests to speed up "efforts towards the phasedown of unabated coal power and phase-out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies" it also included wording on renewable energy for the first time.

However, it fell short of going much further than a similar resolution made at the COP26 conference in Glasgow last year on crucial matters related to reducing pollution that warms the globe.

Frans Timmermans, vice president of the European Commission, expressed disappointment on behalf of the EU and noted that more than 80 countries had approved a greater carbon pledge.

​"What we have in front of us... doesn't bring enough added efforts from major emitters to increase and accelerate their emission cuts," Timmermans said.

German Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock expressed disappointment that emissions reductions and the phase-out of fossil fuels were "stonewalled by a number of large emitters and oil producers."

Britain's Alok Sharma, who presided over COP26 in Glasgow, stated an energy section had been "weakened, in the final minutes"

During the talks, the agreement on loss and damage gained vital traction.

Developing countries relentlessly campaigned for the fund, eventually securing the support of wealthier polluters long wary of open-ended liability.

The Alliance of Small Island States, which is made up of islands whose very existence is endangered by rising sea levels, called the loss and damage agreement "historic"

"The agreements made at COP27 are a win for our entire world," said Molwyn Joseph, of Antigua and Barbuda and chair of AOSIS.

The world has experienced a series of climate-related severe events, with global warming having reached 1.2 degrees Celsius. This has brought attention to the misery of poor nations, who are dealing with growing calamities, a crisis in the price of food and energy, and soaring debt.

The European Union had proposed language in the fund that would target developing countries "that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change."

A representative for the U.S. State Department said that while the agreement does not address accountability or compensation, the fund will concentrate on what can be done right once to help loss and damage resources.

The world is currently off course and headed for about 2.5 degrees Celsius under current promises and plans, according to scientists, who argue that limiting warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius is a considerably safer guardrail against catastrophic climate impacts.

​"The historic outcome on loss and damage at COP27 shows international cooperation is possible," said Mary Robinson, former president of Ireland and Chair of The Elders.