France's National Assembly has adopted legislation to curb violence by extreme Islam.
The legislation has been criticized by liberals as an infringement of liberties and by conservatives for being a weak compromise. France's President Emmanuel Macron has called for an end to the "Islamic separatism" he says is ruining the country.
The law aims to unify principles of French secularism, which does not allow religion in politics. The draft is expected to go to the Senate next month for final approval.
The National Assembly passed the law after 135 hours of debate and more than 300 amendments. Macron's centrist-liberal La République en Marche backed the law.
The legislation has 51 articles that cover the definition of free speech, the banning of "virginity certificates," forced marriages, inheritance, home-schooling and other religion-based practices.
The law prohibits some practices of Islam and says people living in France are citizens first before being a member of a religion. The omission of radical Islamism as the primary target of the law angered some conservatives.
"The target is missed because it is not named. The target is Islamism which aims to impose its totalitarian law over the law of the republic," Philippe Bas, a Republican senator said.
France is grappling with increased actions by extreme Islam. These include the beheading of a French school teacher in October. The teacher was beheaded by a young fanatic after he had displayed a cartoon of the Prophet Mohammad - a practice sacrilegious to Islam.
The incident called into question the government's role in enforcing its laws and respecting religious freedoms. The debate resulted in increased confrontations.
Supporters of the law, which was originally called the "anti-separatism" law, argued it would protect victims of "religious obscurantism."