Marsquakes have revealed its interior to an unparalleled degree, exposing astonishing facts about the planet's crust, mantle and core.
Measurements taken by NASA's InSight, or interior exploration using seismic investigations, geodesy and heat transport, lander have provided details such as a crustal layer that differs dramatically from previous understanding, a mantle that is less dense than the surface, and a core that is larger and less dense than previously estimated.
These new findings support the theory that the Martian core is molten. According to the international research teams, more research is needed to determine whether Mars has a solid inner core like Earth's, surrounded by a molten outer core.
According to Mark Panning of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who participated in the crust study, even the largest Marsquakes are so faint that they would barely be felt on Earth. He is hoping for "the big one," which will make it easier to draw conclusions and identify the Martian interior.
"Fingers crossed, we would love to see some bigger events," Panning said.
The findings are based on around 35 Marsquakes detected by a French seismometer on the InSight, which arrived on Mars in 2018. The domed seismometer has detected 733 Marsquakes so far, but the 35 with magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.0 served as the foundation for these investigations.
Seismic waves were utilized by InSight to assess the crust directly beneath its landing site, determining that at least two, if not three, layers lie beneath the surface, and calculating an average crustal thickness for the entire planet.
Mars' crustal thickness is particularly intriguing because the crust formed at an early stage of development from the leftovers of a molten mantle. As a result, data on Mars' current structure can also provide information on how the planet evolved.
Furthermore, a more detailed understanding of Mars' evolution aids in understanding how early differentiation processes occurred in the solar system and why Mars, Earth and other planets are so distinct.